# 7. Glossary¶

## 7.1. Input file terminology¶

### 7.1.1. Vehicle general characteristics¶

input_version
It corresponds to the version of the template file used for CO2MPAS - not to the CO2MPAS version of the code. Different versions of the file have been used throughout the development of the tool. Input files from version >= 2.2.5 can be used for type approving.
vehicle_family_id

It corresponds to an individual code for each vehicle that is simulated with the CO2MPAS model. This ID does not affect the NEDC prediction. The ID is allocated in the output report and in the dice report. This is the structure of the ID:

FT-TA-WMI-yyyy-nnnn


Where:

• FT is the identifier of the family type according to this:
• 'IP': Interpolation family as defined in paragraph 5.6.
• 'RL': Road load family as defined in paragraph 5.7.
• 'RM': Road load matrix family as defined in paragraph 5.8.
• 'PR': Periodically regenerating systems (Ki) family as defined in paragraph 5.9.
• TA is the distinguishing number of the EC Member State authority responsible for the family approval as defined in [section 1 of point 1 of Annex VII of Directive (EC) 2007/46](http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32007L0046&from=EN). 1 for Germany; 2 for France; 3 for Italy; 4 for the Netherlands; 5 for Sweden; 6 for Belgium; 7 for Hungary; 8 for the Czech Republic; 9 for Spain; 11 for the United Kingdom; 12 for Austria; 13 for Luxembourg; 17 for Finland; 18 for Denmark; 19 for Romania; 20 for Poland; 21 for Portugal; 23 for Greece; 24 for Ireland; 26 for Slovenia; 27 for Slovakia; 29 for Estonia; 32 for Latvia; 34 for Bulgaria; 36 for Lithuania; 49 for Cyprus; 50 for Malta.
• WMI (world manufacturer identifier) is a code that identifies the manufacturer in a unique manner and is defined in ISO 3780:2009. For a single manufacturers several WMI codes may be used.
• yyyy is the year when the test for the family were concluded.
• nnnn is a four digit sequence number.
fuel_type
Used to indicate the type of fuel used by the vehicle during the test. The user must select one among the following options: - diesel, - gasoline, - LPG, - NG or biomethane, - ethanol(E85) or - biodiesel.
engine fuel lower heating value
Lower heating value of the fuel used in the test, expressed in [kJ/kg] of fuel.
fuel_carbon_content_percentage
The amount of carbon present in the fuel by weight, expressed in [%].
positive ignition
compression ignition
ignition_type
Indicate wether the engine of the vehicle is a spark ignition (= positive ignition) or a compression ignition one.
engine_capacity
The total volume of all the cylinders of the engine, expressed in cubic centimeters [cc].
engine_stroke
A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston along the cylinder, in either direction. Indicate the stroke of the engine, expressed in [mm].
idle_engine_speed_median
Indicate the engine speed in warm conditions during idling, expressed in revolutions per minute [rpm].
engine_idle_fuel_consumption
Provide the fuel consumption of the vehicle in warm conditions during idling. The idling fuel consumption of the vehicle, expressed in grams of fuel per second [gFuel/sec] should be measured when: * velocity of the vehicle is 0 * the start-stop system is disengaged * the battery state of charge is at balance conditions. For CO2MPAS purposes, the engine idle fuel consumption can be measured as follows: just after a WLTP physical test, when the engine is still warm, leave the car to idle for 3 minutes so that it stabilizes. Then make a constant measurement of fuel consumption for 2 minutes. Disregard the first minute, then calculate idle fuel consumption as the average fuel consumption of the vehicle during the subsequent 1 minute.
final_drive_ratio
Provide the ratio to be multiplied with all gear_box_ratios. If the car has more than 1 final drive ratio (eg, vehicles with dual/variable clutch), leave blank the final_drive_ratio cell in the Inputs tab and provide the appropriate final drive ratio for each gear in the gear_box_ratios tab.
tyre_code
Tyre code of the tyres used in the WLTP test (e.g., P195/55R16 85H). CO2MPAS does not require the full tyre code to work. But at least provide the following information: - nominal width of the tyre, in [mm]; - ratio of height to width [%]; and - the load index (e.g., 195/55R16). In case that the front and rear wheels are equipped with tyres of different radius (tyres of different width do not affect CO2MPAS), then the size of the tyres fitted in the powered axle should be declared as input to CO2MPAS. For vehicles with different front and rear wheels tyres tested in 4x4 mode, then the size of the tyres from the wheels where the OBD/CAN vehicle speed signal is measured should be declared as input to CO2MPAS.
gear_box_type
Indicate the kind of gear box among automatic transmission, manual transmission, or continuously variable transmission (CVT).
start_stop_activation_time
Indicate the time elapsed from the begining of the NEDC test to the first time the Start-Stop system is enabled, expressed in seconds [s].
alternator_nomimal_voltage
Alternator nomimal voltage [V].
alternator_nomimal_power
Alternator maximum power [kW].
battery_capacity
Battery capacity [Ah].
calibration.initial_temperature.WLTP-H
Initial temperature of the test cell during the WLTP-H test. It is used to calibrate the thermal model. The default value is 23 °C.
calibration.initial_temperature.WLTP-L
Initial temperature of the test cell during the WLTP-L test. It is used to calibrate the thermal model. The default value is 23 °C.
alternator_efficiency
Average alternator efficiency as declared by the manufacturer; if the value is not provided, the default value is = 0.67.
gear_box_ratios
Insert in the gear_box_ratios tab of the input file the gear box ratios as an array [ratio gear 1, ratio gear 2, ...]
full_load_speeds
Insert in the T1_map tab of the input file the engine full load speeds. Input the engine speed [rpm] array used by the OEM to calculate the gearshifting in WLTP. The engine maximum speed, and the engine speed at maximum power are read from this array.
full_load_powers
Insert in the T1_map tab of the input file the engine full load powers. Input the engine power [kW] array used by the OEM to calculate the gearshifting in WLTP. The engine maximum power is read from this array.

vehicle_mass.WLTP-H
Simulated inertia applied during the WLTP-H test on the dyno [kg].
f0.WLTP-H
Set the F0 road load coefficient for WLTP-H. This scalar corresponds to the rolling resistance force [N], when the angle slope is 0.
f1.WLTP-H
Set the F1 road load coefficient for WLTP-H. Defined by Dyno procedure $$[\frac{N}{kmh}]$$.
f2.WLTP-H
Set the F2 road load coefficient for WLTP-H. As used in the Dyno and defined by the respective guideline $$[\frac{N}{{kmh}^2}]$$.
vehicle_mass.WLTP-L
Simulated inertia applied during the WLTP-H test on the dyno [kg].
f0.WLTP-L
Set the F0 road load coefficient for WLTP-L. This scalar corresponds to the rolling resistance force [N], when the angle slope is 0.
f1.WLTP-L
Set the F1 road load coefficient for WLTP-L. Defined by Dyno procedure $$[\frac{N}{kmh}]$$.
f2.WLTP-L
Set the F2 road load coefficient for WLTP-L. As used in the Dyno and defined by the respective guideline $$[\frac{N}{{kmh}^2}]$$.
vehicle_mass.NEDC-H
Inertia class of NEDC-H - Do not correct for rotating parts [kg].
f0.NEDC-H
Set the F0 road load coefficient for NEDC-H. This scalar corresponds to the rolling resistance force [N], when the angle slope is 0.
f1.NEDC-H
Set the F1 road load coefficient for NEDC-H. Defined by Dyno procedure $$[\frac{N}{kmh}]$$.
f2.NEDC-H
Set the F2 road load coefficient for NEDC-H. As used in the Dyno and defined by the respective guideline $$[\frac{N}{{kmh}^2}]$$.
vehicle_mass.NEDC-L
Inertia class of NEDC-H - Do not correct for rotating parts. [kg]
f0.NEDC-L
Set the F0 road load coefficient for NEDC-L. This scalar corresponds to the rolling resistance force [N], when the angle slope is 0.
f1.NEDC-L
Set the F1 road load coefficient for NEDC-L. Defined by Dyno procedure $$[\frac{N}{kmh}]$$.
f2.NEDC-L
Set the F2 road load coefficient for NEDC-L. As used in the Dyno and defined by the respective guideline $$[\frac{N}{{kmh}^2}]$$.

### 7.1.3. Targets¶

co2_emissions_low.WLTP-H
Phase low, CO2 emissions bag values [g|CO2|/km], not corrected for RCB, not rounded WLTP-H test measurements.
co2_emissions_medium.WLTP-H
Phase medium, CO2 emissions bag values [g|CO2|/km], not corrected for RCB, not rounded WLTP-H test measurements.
co2_emissions_high.WLTP-H
Phase high, CO2 emissions bag values [g|CO2|/km], not corrected for RCB, not rounded WLTP-H test measurements.
co2_emissions_extra_high.WLTP-H
Phase extra high, CO2 emissions bag values [g|CO2|/km], not corrected for RCB, not rounded WLTP-H test measurements.
co2_emissions_low.WLTP-L
Phase low, CO2 emissions bag values [g|CO2|/km], not corrected for RCB, not rounded WLTP-L test measurements.
co2_emissions_medium.WLTP-L
Phase medium, CO2 emissions bag values [g|CO2|/km], not corrected for RCB, not rounded WLTP-L test measurements.
co2_emissions_high.WLTP-L
Phase high, CO2 emissions bag values [g|CO2|/km], not corrected for RCB, not rounded WLTP-L test measurements.
co2_emissions_extra_high.WLTP-L
Phase extra high, CO2 emissions bag values [g|CO2|/km], not corrected for RCB, not rounded WLTP-L test measurements.
target declared_co2_emission_value.NEDC-H
Declared value for NEDC vehicle H [g|CO2|/km]. Value should be Ki factor corrected.
target declared_co2_emission_value.NEDC-L
Declared value for NEDC vehicle L [g|CO2|/km]. Value should be Ki factor corrected.
ta_certificate_number
Type approving body certificate number. This number is printed in the output file of CO2MPAS

### 7.1.4. Drive mode¶

The CO2MPAS model can handle vehicles that have 2x4 and 4x4 wheel drive. Provide in this section the driving mode used in the WLTP and NEDC tests. The default value for all tests is 2x4 wheel drive.

n_wheel_drive.WLTP-H
Specify whether WLTP-H test is conducted on 2-wheel driving or 4-wheel driving. The default is 2-wheel drive.
n_wheel_drive.WLTP-L
Specify whether the WLTP-L test is conducted on 2-wheel driving or 4-wheel driving. The default is 2-wheel drive.
n_wheel_drive.NEDC-H
Specify whether the NEDC-H test is conducted on 2-wheel driving or 4-wheel driving. The default is 2-wheel drive.
n_wheel_drive.NEDC-L
Specify whether NEDC-L test is conducted on 2-wheel driving or 4-wheel driving. The default is 2-wheel drive.

### 7.1.5. Vehicle technologies¶

The CO2MPAS model calculates the NEDC CO2 emission prediction considering the presence/absence of a set of technologies in the vehicle. For the following CO2MPAS inputs, 0 corresponds to the absence of the technology whereas 1 is when the vehicle is equipped with the technology. If no input is provided, the CO2MPAS model will use the default value.

turbo
engine_is_turbo
If the air intake of the engine is equipped with any kind of forced induction system set like a turbocharger or supercharger, then set it to 1; otherwise set it to 0. The default value is 1.
S-S
has_start_stop
The start-stop system shuts down the engine of the vehicle during idling to reduce fuel consumption and it restarts it again when the footbrake/clutch is pressed. If the vehicle has a S-S system, set it to 1, otherwise, set it to 0. The default is 1.
has_energy_recuperation
Set it to 1 if the vehicle is equipped with any kind of brake energy recuperation technology or regenerative breaking. Otherwise, set it to 0. The default is 1.
torque converter
has_torque_converter
Set it to 1 if the vehicle is equipped with this technology otherwise, set it to 0. For manual transmission vehicles the default is 0. For automatic tranmission vehicles, the default is 1. For vehicles with continuously variable transmission, the default is 0.
fuel_saving_at_strategy
eco mode
Setting it to 1 allows CO2MPAS to use a higher gear at constant speed driving than when in transient conditions, resulting in a reduction of fuel consumption. This technology was refered as eco_mode in previous releases of CO2MPAS. The default is 1.
has_periodically_regenerating_systems
If the vehicle is equipped with periodically regenerating systems (anti-pollution devices such as catalytic converter or particulate trap) that require a periodical regeneration process in less than 4000 km of normal vehicle operation, set it to 1; otherwise, set it to 0. The default is 0.
ki_factor
For vehicles without has_periodically_regenerating_systems ki_factor is set to 1. For vehicles with periodically regenerating systems, if not provided, this value is set to 1.05. The ki_factor to be used for CO2MPAS is the same value used for NEDC physical tests.
VVA
Variable Valve Actuation
engine_has_variable_valve_actuation
This includes a range of technologies which are used to enable variable valve event timing, duration and/or lift. The term as set includes Valve Timing Control (VTC)—also referred to as Variable Valve Timing (VVT) systems and Variable Valve Lift (VVL) or a combination of these systems (phasing, timing and lift variation). Set it to 1 if the vehicle is equipped with such a system; otherwise, set it to 0. The default is 0.
engine_has_cylinder_deactivation
active_cylinder_ratios

This technology allows the deactivation of one or more cylinders under specific conditions predefined in the CO2MPAS code. The implementation in CO2MPAS allows to use different deactivation ratios. So in the case of an 8-cylinder engine, a 50% deactivation (4 cylinders off) or a 25% deactivation ratio (2 cylinders off) are plausible. CO2MPAS selects the optimal ratio at each point from the plausible deactivation ratios provided by the user. The user cannot alter the deactivation strategy. If the vehicle is equipped with a cylinder deactivation system, set it to 1 and and indicate the deactivation ratios in the active_cylinder_ratios tab. Note that the active_cylinder_ratios always start with 1 (all cylinders are active) and then the user can set the corresponding ratios.

For example, if the vehicle has an engine with 6 cylinders and it has the possibility to deactivate 2 or 3 or 4 cylinders, you have to introduce the following ratios: 0.66 (4/6), 0.5 (3/6), and 0.33 (2/6). If the vehicle does not have cylinder deactivation set engine_has_cylinder_deactivation to 0. The default is 0.

Note that as of November 2016 this specific technology is in validation phase due to lack of sufficient data to support its appropriate implementation in the code. For Rally release, this specific input is considered to be optional.

lean burn
LB
has_lean_burn
The lean burn (LB) technology refers to the burning of fuel with an excess of air in an internal combustion engine. All compression ignition vehicles are supposed to be equipped with LB by default therefore for compression ignition this must be set to 0. For positive ignition engines set it to 1 if the vehicle is equipped with LB, otherwise set it to 0. The default is 0.
has_gear_box_thermal_management

This specific technology option applies only to vehicles in which the temperature of the gearbox is regulated from the vehicle’s cooling circuit using a heat-exchanger, heating storage system or other methods for directing engine waste-heat to the gearbox. Gearbox mounting and other passive systems (encapsulation) should not be considered. In case the vehicle is equipped with the described gear box thermal management system, set it to 1; otherwise, set it to 0. The default is 0.

Note that as of November 2016 this specific technology is in validation phase due to lack of sufficient data to support its appropriate implementation in the code. For Rally release, this specific input is considered to be optional.

EGR
Exhaust gas recirculation
has_exhausted_gas_recirculation
EGR recirculates a portion of an engine’s exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders to reduce NOx emissions. The technology does not concern internal (in-cylinder) EGR. Set it to 1 if the vehicle is equipped with external EGR (high-pressure, low-pressure, or a combination of the two); otherwise, set it to 0. The default is 0 for positive ignition, and 1 for compression ignition engines.
SCR
has_selective_catalytic_reduction

On compression ignition vehicles, the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system uses urea to reduce NOx emissions. Therefore this technology is only applicable for compression ignition engines. If the vehicle is equipped with SCR set has_selective_catalytic_reduction to 1; otherwise, set it to 0. The default value is 0.

Note that as of November 2016 this specific technology is in validation phase due to lack of sufficient data to support its appropriate implementation in the code. For Rally release, this specific input is considered to be optional.

### 7.1.6. Dyno configuration¶

n_dyno_axes.WLTP-H
The WLTP regulation states that WLTP tests should be performed using a dyno with 2 rotating axis. Therefore, the default value for this variable is 2. Setit to 1 in case a 1 rotating axis dyno was used during the WLTP-H test.
n_dyno_axes.WLTP-L
The WLTP regulation states that WLTP tests should be performed using a dyno with 2 rotating axis. Therefore, the default value for this variable is 2. Set it to 1 in case a 1 rotating axis dyno was used during the WLTP-L test.

## 7.2. DICE¶

co2dice
dice
dice command
sampling procedure

The CO2MPAS application, procedure or the co2dice console command(s) required to produce eventually the decision flag defining whether a type approval procedure needs double testing:

Used also as a verb:

The simulation files have been diced as NOSAMPLE.
Git DB
Hash DB
Git repo
Git repo DB
projects DB

The Git repository maintained by the dice command that manages project instances.

All hash occurences are generated and/or retrieved against this repository.

project
dice project
project id
project archive

The project is the persistent entity keeping track of the electronic artifacts of the type approval for some vehicle family, residing in the local hash DB of each dice installation.

ID (project) := vehicle_family_id

It is created and managed by the designated user using dice commands to step through successive states. Finally it is archived and sent to the supervising TAA.

state
project state
state transitions

A project undergoes certain state transitions during its lifetime, reacting to various dice commands:

dice report sheet

A sheet in the output excel-file roughly derived from Input + Output files containing the non-confidential results of the simulation:

dice report sheet := non_confidential_data (input-files + output-files + other-files)

The dice report is derived from it.

output report
output report sheet
A sheet in the output excel-file containing they major simulation results.
dice report
dice request
dice email

The dice report sheet in textual form (YAML) stored in the project and signed with the electronic key of the designated user:

dice report := dice report sheet + SIG (designated user key)
ID (dice report) := HASH-1

It is cryptographically signed to guarantee the authenticity of the contained values. It sent through a stamper to prevent its repudiation, and returns as the dice stamp.

stamp
dice stamp
stamp response
stamp email

The signed dice report as retuned from the stamper:

stamp email := dice report + SIG (stamper key)

The decision flag gets derived from its signature while the project parses it and generates the decision report.

decision
decision flag
decision percent
double testing

A structure containing the 'OK'/'SAMPLE' flag and the percent derived from the dice stamp‘s signature (a random number), persisted in the decision report and in the project as a plain file.

The meaning of the flag’s values is the following:

• 'OK' means that the declared NEDC value is accepted (assuming CO2MPAS prediction does not deviate more than 4% of the declared NEDC value).
• 'SAMPLE' means that independently of the result of CO2MPAS prediction the vehicle has to undergo an NEDC physical test, “double testing”; see decision percent below for which H/L vehicle to test under NEDC.

The meaning of the decision percent is explained in the following table:

decision report

Since CO2MPAS v1.7.x, this new textual report (YAML) is the final outcome of the sampling procedure containing the signed and timestamped data from all intermediate reports;

decision report := dice stamp + decision + SIG (designated user key)
ID (decision report) := HASH-2

It generated and stored internally in the project, and signed by the designated user to prevent tampering and repudiation. The final HASH-2 contained in it may be communicated to the supervising TAA earlier that the project archive.

HASH-1

The cryptographic hash contained in the dice report which identifies unequivocally the type approval procedure prior to stamping.

It is generated by the project while parsing the dice report sheet.

HASH-2

The cryptographic hash contained in the decision report which unequivocally identifies a completed sampling procedure.

It is generated by the project while importing the dice stamp. It may be sent to the TAA prior to sending them the project archive.

TAA Report

A “printed” PDF file that the TS have to send to the TAA to generate the Certificate which is unequivocally associated with all files & reports above:

stamper
timestamper
timestamp service
Either the mail stamper or the web stamper services that append a cryptographic signature on an “incoming” dice report, and sends it with an email to recipients to prevent repudiation at a later time.
mail stamper

A stamper mail-server that stamps and forwards all incoming e-mails to specified recipients.

The trust on its certifications stems from the list of signatures published daily in its site.

web stamper
JRC’s user-friendly stamper web-application that uses a simple HTTP-form to timestamp a pasted dice report and return a dice stamp, emailing it also to any specified recipients, always including from CLIMA/JRC.

## 7.3. Generic terms¶

NEDC
New European Driving Cycle
WLTP
type approval
Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures
CO2MPAS
May refer to the application, the correlation procedure, or to the WLTP –> NEDC simulator.
repeatability
The capability of CO2MPAS to duplicate the exact simulation results when running repeatedly on the same computer. This is guaranteed by using non-stochastic algorithms (or using always the same random-seed).
reproducibility
replicability
The capability of CO2MPAS to duplicate the exact same simulation results on a different computer. This is guaranteed when using the All-in-One environment.
e-file
electronic-file
Any piece of information stored in electronic form that constitutes the input or the output of some software application or IT procedure.
hash
Hash-ID
A very big number usually expressed in hexadecimal form (e.g. SHA1) that can be generated cryptographically from any kind of e-file based exclusively on its contents; even if a single bit of the file changes, its hash-id is guaranteed to be totally different.
Git
An open-source version control system use for software development that organizes files in versioned folders, stored based on their hash. It is distributed, in the sense that any Git installation can communicate and exchange files and versioned folders with any other installation.
SHA1

A fast and hashing algorithm with 160bit numbers (20 bytes, 40 hex digits), used, among others, by Git.

Example:

SHA1("CO2MPAS") = c5badbe95ad77c0ca66abed422c964aa080d8c07

JSON
JavaScript Object Notation: a lightweight human-readable data-interchange data format, easy for machines to parse and generate. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSON
YAML
Ain’t Markup Language: A human-friendly data serialization language, commonly used for configuration files and data exchnage. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YAML
IO
Input/Output; when referring to a software application, we mean the internal interfaces that read and write files and streams of data from devices, databases or other external resources.
OEM
Original Equipment Manufacturers, eg. a Vehicle manufacturer
TAA
Type Approval Authority: the national supervision body for a type approval procedure
TS
Technical service: the entity running the WLTP on behalf of the OEM, which reports to some TAA. in some cases, the TAA might be also the TS.
designated user
Any organizational entity or person (usually a TS) running type-approval on behalf of some OEM and reporting to some TAA.
Capped cycles
For vehicles that cannot follow the standard NEDC/WLTP cycles (for example, because they have not enough power to attain the acceleration and maximum speed values required in the operating cycle) it is still possible to use the CO2MPAS tool to predict the NEDC CO2 emission. For these capped cycles, the vehicle has to be operated with the accelerator control fully depressed until they once again reach the required operating curve. Thus, the operated cycle may last more than the standard duration seconds and the subphases may vary in duration. Therefore there is a need to indicate the exact duration of each subphase. This can be done by filling in, the corresponding bag_phases vector in the input file which define the phases integration time [1,1,1,...,2,2,2,...,3,3,3,...,4,4,4]. Providing this input for WLTP cycles together with the other standard vectorial inputs such as speed,engine speed, etc. allows CO2MPAS to process a “modified” WLTP and get calibrated properly. The NEDC that is predicted corresponds to the respective NEDC velocity profile and gearshifting that applies to the capped cycle, which is provided in the appropriate tab. Note that, providing NEDC velocity and gear shifting profile is not allowed for normal vehicles.
Rotational mass
The rotational mass is defined in the WLTP GTR (ECE/TRANS/WP.29/GRPE/2016/3) as the equivalent effective mass of all the wheels and vehicle components rotating with the wheels on the road while the gearbox is placed in neutral, in kg. It shall be measured or calculated using an appropriate technique agreed upon by the responsible authority. Alternatively, it may be estimated to be 3 per cent of the sum of the mass in running order and 25 kg.